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Although we did not observe higher total KIN-19 protein levels in the whole animal with age, we found a 1.6-fold up-regulation of kin-19 promoter-directed expression in the pharynx, as measured by quantification of the transcriptional Pkin-19:: tagRFP fluorescent reporter ( Figure 4A ). To exclude the hypothesis that KIN-19 aggregation in the pharynx was caused solely by an increase in the level of KIN-19, we reduced KIN-19::tagRFP levels using RNAi ( Figure 4B ) and asked whether the protein would still aggregate with age. Adult-only kin-19 -RNAi treatment reduced the levels of KIN-19::tagRFP in 6-day-old adults to a level similar to that measured in 2-day-old controls. Under these conditions, we still observed significantly more KIN-19::tagRFP aggregation in older animals than in young animals ( Figure 4C and 4D ). We confirmed by FRAP that aggregates in 6-day-old kin-19 RNAi-treated animals were formed by immobile KIN-19::tagRFP ( Figure S4C ). These findings show that preventing protein levels from increasing does not abrogate KIN-19 aggregation.

Figure 4. Reducing KIN-19::tagRFP levels does not prevent age-dependent protein aggregation in the pharynx.

(A) The activity of the kin-19 promoter was up-regulated with age. Fluorescence from the tagRFP reporter driven by the kin-19 promoter increased by 1.6-fold between Day 2 and Day 6 in Pkin-19::tagrfp animals (Unpaired t test * p  = 0.03). Relative fluorescence quantification in the anterior pharyngeal bulb is shown, 5 ms exposure. Numbers of animals quantified are given in the histogram bars. Error bars indicate SEM. (B) kin-19 RNAi treatment prevented an increase in KIN-19::tagRFP levels with age (Day 2 versus Day 6 with kin-19 RNAi, unpaired t test p >0.1). In comparison, KIN-19::tagRFP levels increased in the anterior pharyngeal bulb by 2.4-fold between Day 2 and Day 6 in Pkin-19::kin-19::tagrfp animals treated with control RNAi (Unpaired t test *** p <0.0001). Error bars indicate SEM. (C) Representative animals treated with kin-19 RNAi or control RNAi. (D) Reducing KIN-19::tagRFP levels did not prevent its age-dependent aggregation. Animals were classified into three groups depending on the number of KIN-19::tagRFP puncta present in their anterior pharyngeal bulbs. For statistical analysis, we grouped both categories with more than 10 puncta and compared them to the category with less than 10 puncta. At Day 6, animals treated with control or kin-19 RNAi had significantly more KIN-19::tagRFP aggregation than did control or kin-19(RNAi) animals on Day 2 (with kin-19 RNAi, Day 2 and Day 6, Yates' Chi-square test: p <0.0001; with control RNAi, Day 2 and Day 6, Yates' Chi-square test: p <0.0001). Numbers of animals evaluated are shown in the histogram bars.

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Publication: Monitor Volume: 7 Issue: 112

June 11, 2001 07:00 AM Age: 17 years

On June 8, Vitaly Tretyakov, founder of the newspaper Nezavisimaya Gazeta (NG), was removed as its chief editor and general director. A meeting of the paper’s shareholders took place the same day, during which Tat’yana Koshkareva, the former director of information programs at Russian Public Television (ORT), who before 1999 served as NG deputy editor, was selected to replace Tretyakov. Rustam Narzikulov, who up until 1999 headed the paper’s economics section, was named as its general director.

According to Tretyakov, he met in France on June 4 with Nezavisimaya Gazeta’s owner, Boris Berezovsky, who asked him to step down as chief editor and take the job of chairman of the paper’s board. Tretyakov said he turned down the offer because the post of board chairman has no real influence on the paper’s activities. Tretyakov believes that political differences with Berezovsky, who holds an 80-percent stake in the paper, were the real reason for his removal (Russian agencies, June 6-8).

Most Russian media have agreed, viewing Tretyakov’s removal as a political decision that will destroy Nezavisimaya Gazeta in its current form. At the same time, most commentators have not questioned that Berezovsky, as the paper’s majority shareholder, had the right, first, to make such personnel changes and, second, to change the paper’s character and political direction. Literary critic Andrei Nemzer essentially accused Berezovsky of trying to destroy the paper. “Tretyakov was not only the founder and editor of NG, but its soul, brain and image,” Nemzer wrote. “In a ten-year span NG turned into an inimitable publication. What kind [of publication] is a separate question. To destroy it is to deal a blow to the culture…. His resignation means the end of the newspaper” (Vremya Novostei, June 7). Izvestia, meanwhile, predicted major changes in Russia’s “newspaper map.” “Mutual dissatisfaction was building up for a long time. The political lines of the owner and the chief editor diverged: Berezovsky has already been in opposition for a long time, but Tretyakov was more or less loyal to the authorities,” the paper said. “As a result, Berezovsky had given [the paper] practically no money in recent days and was looking for an alternative chief editor” (Izvestia, June 7).

Another of Berezovsky’s newspapers, Kommersant, put forward the “economic version” for Tretyakov’s removal. “The ‘economic reasons’ for the removal put forward by Boris Berezovsky look plausible,” Kommersant wrote. “At least the question of the publication’s financing stands out sharply. During the past few years NG’s employees have been paid chronically late, [and] Boris Berezovsky, responding to appeals to resolve this issue, has consistently urged: ‘Change the paper’s advertising policy'” (Kommersant, June 7). Meanwhile, the website hinted at that financial malfeasance had occurred on Tretyakov’s watch. Citing an unnamed source “close” to Nezavisimaya Gazeta’s owners, the website claimed that the paper’s management had spent US$1.8 million on its upkeep over the last year, plus funds received from advertisements, subscriptions and retail sales. The sources were quoted as saying that they could not understand why, given such expenditures, staff journalists and other contributors had not received salaries and honoraria (, June 7).




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The absorption may be so deep as not only to banish ordinary sensations, but even the severest pain. Pascal, Wesley, Robert Hall, are said to have had this capacity. Dr. Carpenter says of himself that

"he has frequently begun a lecture whilst suffering neuralgic pain so severe as to make him apprehend that he would find it impossible to proceed; yet no sooner has he by a determined effort fairly launched himself into the stream of thought, than he has found himself continuously borne along without the least distraction, until the end has come, and the attention has been released; when the pain has recurred with a force that has overmastered all resistance, making him wonder how he could have ever ceased to feel it."[ 20 ]

Dr. Carpenter speaks of launching himself by a determined effort . This effort characterizes what we called ac - [p. 420] tive or voluntary attention . It is a feeling which every one knows, but which most people would call quite indescribable. We get it in the sensorial sphere whenever we seek to catch an impression of extreme faintness , be it of sight, hearing, taste, smell, or touch; we get it whenever we seek to discriminate a sensation merged in a mass of others that are similar; we get it whenever we resist the attractions of more potent stimuli and keep our mind occupied with some object that is naturally unimpressive. We get it in the intellectual sphere under exactly similar conditions: as we strive to sharpen and make distinct an idea which we but vaguely seem to have; or painfully discriminate a shade of meaning from its similars; or resolutely hold fast to a thought so discordant with our impulses that, if left unaided, it would quickly yield place to images of an exciting and impassioned kind. All forms of attentive effort would be exercised at once by one whom we might suppose at a dinner-party resolutely to listen to a neighbor giving him insipid and unwelcome advice in a low voice, whilst all around the guests were loudly laughing and talking about exciting and interesting things.

There is no such thing as voluntary attention sustained for more than a few seconds at a time . What is called sustained voluntary attention is a repetition of successive efforts which bring back the topic to the mind.[ 21 ] The topic once brought back, if a congenial one, develops ; and if its development is interesting it engages the attention passively for a time. Dr. Carpenter, a moment back, described the stream of thought, once entered, as 'bearing him along.' This passive interest may be short or long. As soon as it flags, the attention is diverted by some irrelevant thing, and then a voluntary effort may bring it back to the topic again; and so on, under favorable conditions, for hours together. During all this time, however, note that it is not [p. 421] an identical object in the psychological sense (p. 275), but a succession of mutually related objects forming an identical topic only, upon which the attention is fixed. No one can possibly attend continuously to an object that does not change .

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